The Black Family in the Journal of Negro History

The following is a bibliography of articles from the Journal of Negro History related to our theme. Please peruse the list to find articles that might be suitable for your research interests.

Use your ASALH individual or institutional membership to access to articles in the journal.

The Black Family in ASALH Reports and Programs

Woodson, Carter G.  “Annual Report of the Director,” The Journal of Negro History, 32/4 (Oct. 1947):  407-416.

Woodson, C. G.  “The Annual Report of the Director,” The Journal of Negro History, 33/4 (Oct. 1948):  387-394.

Brewer, W. M.  “Annual Report,” The Journal of Negro History, 37/4 (Oct. 1952):  359-367.

Harris, Jr., Robert L.  “The Sixty-Fifth Annual Meeting,” The Journal of Negro History, 66/4 (Winter 1981-1982):  318-325.

Bellamy, Donnie D.  “The Sixty-Sixth Annual Meeting,” The Journal of Negro History, 68/1 (Winter 1983):  54-58.

Brewer, William M.  “Documents:  The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History Fifty-Fourth Annual Meeting, October 8-12, 1969,” The Journal of Negro History, 78/1 (Winter 1993):  49-77.

“Document:  68th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History, Inc., October 19-23, 1983,” The Journal of Negro History, 79/1 (Winter 1994):  100-129.

The Black Family as the Primary Research Focus

Frazier, E. Franklin.  “The Negro Slave Family,” The Journal of Negro History, 15/2 (Apr. 1930): 198-259.

Fitchett, E. Horace.  “The Influence of Claflin College on Negro Family Life,” The Journal of Negro History, 29/4 (Oct. 1944):  429-460.

Crouch, Barry A.  “The ‘Chords of Love’:  Legalizing Black Marital and Family Rights in Postwar

Texas,” The Journal of Negro History, 79/4 (Autumn 1994):  334-351.

The Black Family – Biographies and Obituaries

Smith, Anna Bustill.  “The Bustill Family,” The Journal of Negro History, 10/4 (Oct. 1925):  638-644.

O’Quinlivan, Michael and Benjamin F. Speller, Jr.  “An Index to Obituary Sketches in the Journal of Negro History, 1926-1958,” The Journal of Negro History, 57/4 (Oct. 1972):  447-454.

Thornell, Paul N. D.  “The Absent Ones and the Providers:  A Biography of the Vashons,” The Journal of Negro History, 83/4 (Autumn 1998):  284-301.

Vincent, Charles.  “Aspects of the Family and Public Life of Antoine Dubuclet:  Louisiana’s Black State Treasurer, 1868-1878,” The Journal of Negro History, 66/1 (Spring 1981):  26-36.

Sumler-Lewis, Janice.  “The Forten-Purvis Women of Philadelphia and the American Anti-Slavery Crusade,” The Journal of Negro History, 66/4 (Winter 1981-1982):  281-288.

The Black Family – Genealogy Documents and Other Primary Sources

Pleasants, Robert.  “The Will of Robert Pleasants,” The Journal of Negro History, 2/4 (Oct. 1917): 429-430.

Scott, Emmett J.  “More Letters of Negro Migrants of 1916-1918,” The Journal of Negro History, 4/4 (Oct. 1919):  412-465.

Cuffe, Paul.  “The Will of Paul Cuffe,” The Journal of Negro History, 8/2 (Apr. 1923):  230-232.

Brown, Caesar et. al.  “Letters of Negroes, Largely Personal and Private [Part 1],” The Journal of Negro History, 11/1 (Jan. 1926):  62-87.

Hackley, Richard et. al.  “Letters of Negroes, Largely Personal and Private [Part 2],” The Journal of Negro History, 11/1 (Jan. 1926):  87-112.

Thompson, John et. al.  “Letters of Negroes, Largely Personal and Private [Part 3],” The Journal of Negro History, 11/1 (Jan. 1926):  112-136.

Hill, John H. et. al.  “Letters of Negroes, Largely Personal and Private [Part 4],” The Journal of Negro History, 11/1 (Jan. 1926):  136-160.

Page, Thomas F. et. al.  “Letters of Negroes, Largely Personal and Private [Part 5],” The Journal of Negro History, 11/1 (Jan. 1926):  160-185.

Nell, William C. et. al.  “Letters of Negroes, Largely Personal and Private [Part 6],” The Journal of Negro History, 11/1 (Jan. 1926):  186-214.

Bonga, George.  “Letters of George Bonga,” The Journal of Negro History, 12/1 (Jan. 1927):  41-54.

Claiborne, Wm. Dan., et. al.  “Manumission Petitions Presented to the Virginia Legislature,” The Journal of Negro History, 13/1 (Jan. 1928):  87-101.

Updike, John et. al.  “Manumission Papers of Free People of Color of Petersburg, Virginia, Deeds of Emancipation of Negroes Freeing Negroes,” The Journal of Negro History, 13/4 (Oct. 1928):  534-538.

Warren, Jesse et. al.  “Wills and Other Papers of North Carolina,” The Journal of Negro History, 16/3 (Jul. 1931):  328-337.

Miller, M. Sammye.  “Last Will and Testament of Robert Reed Church, Senior (1839-1912),” The Journal of Negro History, 65/2 (Spring 1980):  156-157.

Church, R. R., L. M. Neely and George G. Alban.  “Last Will and Testament of R. R. Church,” The Journal of Negro History, 65/2 (Spring 1980):  158-163.

Campbell, Randolph B. and Donald K. Pickens.  “‘My Dear Husband’:  A Texas Slave’s Love Letter, 1862,” The Journal of Negro History, 65/4 (Autumn 1980):  361-364.

Winston, Michael R. et. al.  “The Quest for Freedom:  Selected Documents Illustrative of Some Aspects of the Life of Blacks between 1774 and 1841,” The Journal of Negro History, 61/1 (Jan. 1976):  88-97.

The Black Family – Surviving Slavery

McDougle, Ivan E.  “The Social Status of the Slave,” The Journal of Negro History, 3/3 (Jul. 1918):  281-302.

Hunter, Frances L.  “Slave Society on the Southern Plantation,” The Journal of Negro History,7/1 (Jan. 1922):  1-10.

Pitman, Frank Wesley.  “The Breeding and Vitality of Eighteenth Century Slaves in the British West Indies,” The Journal of Negro History, 11/4 (Oct. 1926):  629-649.

Jackson, Luther P.  “Manumission in Certain Virginia Cities,” The Journal of Negro History, 15/3 (Jul. 1930):  278-314.

Wiliams, Mary Wilhelmine.  “The Treatment of Negro Slaves in the Brazilian Empire:  A Comparison with the United States of America,” The Journal of Negro History, 15/3 (Jul. 1930):  315-336

Cade, John B.  “Out of the Mouths of Ex-Slaves,” The Journal of Negro History, 20/3 (Jul. 1935): 294-337.

Parkhurst, Jessie W.  “The Role of the Black Mammy in the Plantation Household,” The Journal of Negro History, 23/3 (Jul. 1938):  349-369.

Olson, Edwin.  “Social Aspects of Slave Life in New York,” The Journal of Negro History, 26/1 (Jan. 1941):  66-77.

Yoshpe, Harry B.  “Record of Slave Manumissions in New York During the Colonial and Early National Periods,” The Journal of Negro History, 26/1 (Jan. 1941):  78-107.

Matison, Sumner Eliot.  “Manumission by Purchase,” The Journal of Negro History, 33/2 (Apr. 1948):  146-167.

Graham, Pearl M.  “Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings,” The Journal of Negro History, 46/2 (Apr. 1961):  89-103.

Graham, Pearl M.  “Correction:  Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings,” The Journal of Negro History, 46/3 (Apr. 1961):  206.

Lerner, Gerda.  “The Grimke Sisters and the Struggle Against Race Prejudice,” The Journal of Negro History, 48/4 (Oct. 1963):  277-291.

Wilson, Mary Tolford.  “Peaceful Integration:  The Owner’s Adoption of his Slaves’ Food,” The Journal of Negro History, 49/2 (Apr. 1964):  116-127.

Schweninger, Loren.  “A Slave Family in the Ante-Bellum South,” The Journal of Negro History, 60/1 (Jan. 1975): 29-44.

Meaders, Daniel E.  “South Carolina Fugitives as Viewed through Local Colonial Newspapers with Emphasis on Runaway Notices, 1732-1801,” The Journal of Negro History, 60/2 (Apr. 1975):  288-319.

Winston, Michael R. et. al.  “The Quest for Freedom:  Selected Documents Illustrative of Some Aspects of the Life of Blacks between 1774 and 1841,” The Journal of Negro History, 61/1 (Jan. 1976):  88-97.

Windley, Lathan A. and Thomas Jefferson.  “Runaway Slave Advertisements of George Washington and Thomas Jefferson,” The Journal of Negro History, 63/4 (Oct. 1978):  373-374.

Wagman, Morton.  “Corporate Slavery in New Netherland,” The Journal of Negro History, 65/1 (Winter 1980):  34-42.

Robinson, Henry S.  “Who Was West Ford?” The Journal of Negro History, 66/2 (Summer 1981): 167-174.

Pollard, Leslie J.  “Aging and Slavery:  A Gerontological Perspective,” The Journal of Negro History, 66/3 (Autumn 1981):  228-234.

Rivers, Larry E.  “Slavery in Microcosm:  Leon County, Florida, 1824 to 1860,” The Journal of Negro History, 66/3 (Autumn 1981):  235-245.

Sumler-Lewis, Janice.  “The Forten-Purvis Women of Philadelphia and the American Anti-Slavery Crusade,” The Journal of Negro History, 66/4 (Winter 1981-1982):  281-288.

Howard, Victor B.  “The Civil War in Kentucky:  The Slave Claims His Freedom,” The Journal of Negro History, 67/3 (Autumn 1982):  245-256.

Walker, Juliet E. K.  “Pioneer Slave Entrepreneurship – Patterns, Processes, and Perspectives: The Case of the Slave Free Frank on the Kentucky Pennyroyal, 1795-1819,” The Journal of Negro History, 68/3 (Summer 1983):  289-308.

Middleton, Stephen.  “The Fugitive Slave Crisis in Cincinnati, 1850-1860:  Resistance, Enforcement, and Black Refugees,” The Journal of Negro History, 72, 1/2 (Winter -Spring 1987):  20-32.

The Black Family – Free Families during the Era of Slavery

Jackson, Luther P.  “Free Negroes of Petersburg, Virginia,” The Journal of Negro History, 12/3 (Jul. 1927):  365-388.

Fitchett, E. Horace.  “The Traditions of the Free Negro in Charleston, South Carolina,” The Journal of Negro History, 25/2 (Apr. 1940):  139-152.

Fitchett, E. Horace.  “The Origin and Growth of the Free Negro Population of Charleston, South Carolina,” The Journal of Negro History, 26/4 (Oct. 1941):  421-437.

Fitchett, E. Horace.  “The Status of the Free Negro in Charleston, South Carolina, and His Descendants in Modern Society:  Statement of the Problem,” The Journal of Negro History, 32/4 (Oct. 1947):  430-451.

Muir, Andrew Forest.  “The Free Negro in Jefferson and Orange Counties, Texas,” The Journal of Negro History, 35/2 (Apr. 1950):  183-206.

Perlman, Daniel.  “Organizations of the Free Negro in New York City, 1800-1860,” The Journal of Negro History, 56/3 (Jul. 1971):  181-197.

Littlefield, Jr., Daniel F. and Mary Ann Littlefield.  “The Beams Family:  Free Blacks in Indian Territory,” The Journal of Negro History, 61/1 (Jan. 1976):  16-35.

Schweninger, Loren and John H. Rapier.  “The Dilemma of a Free Negro in the Ante-Bellum South,” The Journal of Negro History, 62/3 (Jul. 1977):  283-288.

The Black Family during the Civil War and Reconstruction

Billington, Ray Allen.  “A Social Experiment:  The Port Royal Journal of Charlotte L. Forten, 1862-1863,” The Journal of Negro History, 35/3 (Jul. 1950):  233-264.

Cornish, Dudley Taylor.  “The Union Army as a School for Negroes,” The Journal of Negro History, 37/4 (Oct. 1952):  368-382.

Bacote, Clarence A.  “William Finch, Negro Councilman and Political Activities in Atlanta During Early Reconstruction,” The Journal of Negro History, 40/4 (Oct. 1955):  341-364.

Hoffman, Edwin D.  “From Slavery to Self-Reliance:  The Record of Achievement of the Freedmen of the Sea Island Region,” The Journal of Negro History, 41/1 (Jan. 1956):  8-42.

Pease, William H.  “Three Years among the Freedmen:  William C. Gannett and the Port Royal Experiment,” The Journal of African History, 42/2 (Apr. 1957):  98-117.

Hamilton, Kenneth M.  “White Wealth and Black Repression in Harrison County, Texas:  1865-1868,” The Journal of Negro History, 84/4 (Autumn 1999):  340-359.

The Black Family (as a Result of) Migrations and Emigrations

Scott, Emmett J.  “More Letters of Negro Migrants of 1916-1918,” The Journal of Negro History, 4/4 (Oct. 1919):  412-465.

Donald, Henderson H.  “The Effects of the Migration upon the Migrants Themselves,” The Journal of Negro History, 6/4 (Oct. 1921):  445-457.

Robinson, Jr., George F.  “The Negro in Politics in Chicago,” The Journal of Negro History, 17/2 (Apr. 1932):  180-229.

Hill, Mozell C.  “The All-Negro Communities of Oklahoma:  The Natural History of a Social Movement: Part I,” The Journal of Negro History, 31/3 (Jul. 1946):  254-268.

Garvin, Roy.  “Benjamin, or ‘Pap,’ Singleton and His Followers,” The Journal of Negro History, 33/1 (Jan. 1948):  7-23.

Bell, Howard H.  “Negro Nationalism:  A Factor in Emigration Projects, 1858-1861,” The Journal of Negro History, 47/1 (Jan. 1962):  42-53.

Lapp, Rudolph M.  “The Negro in Gold Rush California,” The Journal of Negro History, 49/2 (Apr. 1964):  81-98.

Smith, T. Lynn.  “The Redistribution of the Negro Population of the United States, 1910-1960,” The Journal of Negro History, 51/3 (Jul. 1966):  155-173.

Tuttle, Jr., William M.  “Contested Neighborhoods and Racial Violence:  Prelude to the Chicago Riot of 1919,” The Journal of Negro History, 55/4 (Oct. 1970):  266-288.

Butler, Jon.  “Communities and Congregations:  The Black Church in St. Paul, 1860-1900,” The Journal of Negro History, 56/2 (Apr. 1971):  118-134.

Betten, Neil and Raymond A. Mohl.  “The Evolution of Racism in an Industrial City, 1906-1940: A Case Study of Gary, Indiana,” The Journal of Negro History, 59/1 (Jan. 1974):  51-64.

Homel, Michael W.  “The Lilydale School Campaign of 1936:  Direct Action in the Verbal Protest Era,” The Journal of Negro History, 59/3 (Jul. 1974):  228-241.

Peterson, Joyce Shaw.  “Black Automobile Workers in Detroit, 1910-1930,” The Journal of Negro History, 64/3 (Summer 1979):  177-190.

Taylor, Quintard.  “The Emergence of Black Communities in the Pacific Northwest:  1865-1910,” The Journal of Negro History, 64/4 (Autumn 1979):  342-354.

Ryon, Roderick N.  “An Ambiguous Legacy:  Baltimore Blacks and the CIO, 1936-1941,” The Journal of Negro History, 65/1 (Winter 1980):  18-33.

Hill, James L.  “Migration of Blacks to Iowa, 1820-1960,” The Journal of Negro History, 66/4 (Winter 1981-1982):  289-303.

Beran, Janice A.  “Diamonds in Iowa:  Blacks, Buxton, and Baseball,” The Journal of Negro History, 75, 3/4 (Summer-Autumn 1990):  81-95.

McMillen, Christian.  “Border State Terror and the Genesis of the African-American Community in Deer Lodge and Choteau Counties, Montana, 1870-1890,” The Journal of Negro History, 79/2 (Spring 1994):  212-247.

Taylor, Quintard.  “The Civil Rights Movement in the American West:  Black Protest in Seattle, 1960-1970,” The Journal of Negro History, 80/1 (Winter 1995):  1-14.

Geib, Paul.  “From Mississippi to Milwaukee:  A Case Study of the Southern Black Migration to Milwaukee, 1940-1970,” The Journal of Negro History, 83/4 (Autumn 1998):  229-248.

The Black Family – Relations between “Negroes and Indians”

Johnston, J. H.  “Documentary Evidence of the Relations of Negroes and Indians,” The Journal of Negro History, 14/1 (Jan. 1929):  21-43.

Porter, Kenneth W.  “Association as Fellow Slaves,” The Journal of Negro History, 17/3 (Jul. 1932):  294-297.

Porter, Kenneth W.  “Contacts as Allies,” The Journal of Negro History, 17/3 (Jul. 1932):  307- 320.

Porter, Kenneth W.  “Relations in the South,” The Journal of Negro History, 17/3 (Jul. 1932): 321-350.

Porter, Kenneth W.  “After the Removal to the West,” The Journal of Negro History, 17/3 (Jul. 1932):  351-358.

Porter, Kenneth W.  “Contacts in Other Parts,” The Journal of Negro History, 17/3 (Jul. 1932): 359-367.

Jeltz, Wyatt F.  “The Relations of Negroes and Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians,” The Journal of Negro History, 33/1 (Jan. 1948):  24-37.

Porter, Kenneth Wiggins.  “Negroes and the Seminole War, 1817-1818,” The Journal of Negro History, 36/3 (Jul. 1951):  249-280.

Littlefield, Jr., Daniel F. and Mary Ann Littlefield.  “The Beams Family:  Free Blacks in Indian Territory,” The Journal of Negro History, 61/1 (Jan. 1976):  16-35.

Vincent, Theodore G.  “The Contributions of Mexico’s First Black Indian President, Vincente Guerrero,” The Journal of Negro History, 86/2 (Spring 2001):  148-159.

The Black Family – Africa, African Retentions, and the African Diaspora

Nyabongo, Prince.  “African Life and Ideals,” The Journal of Negro History, 26/3 (Jul. 1941):  279-298.

Wieschhoff, H. A.  “Divorce Laws and Practices in Modern Ibo Culture,” The Journal of Negro History, 26/3 (Jul. 1941):  299-324.

Harris, J. S.  “Some Aspects of Slavery in Southeastern Nigeria,” The Journal of Negro History, 27/1 (Jan. 1942):  37-54.

Beltran, G. Aguirre.  “Historical Background,” The Journal of Negro History, 31/3 (Jul. 1946): 269-289.

Beltran, G. Aguirre.  “The Rivers of Guinea,” The Journal of Negro History, 31/3 (Jul. 1946):  290-316.

Beltran, G. Aguirre.  “San Thome,” The Journal of Negro History, 31/3 (Jul. 1946):  317-352.

Rodney, Walter.  “Upper Guinea and the Significance of the Origins of Africans Enslaved in the New World,” The Journal of Negro History, 54/4 (Oct. 1969):  327-345.

Watson, R. L.  “American Scholars and the Continuity of African Culture in the United States,” The Journal of Negro History, 63/4 (Oct. 1978):  375-386.

The Black Family – Women’s Agency

Woodson, C. G.  “The Negro Washerwoman, A Vanishing Figure,” The Journal of Negro History, 15/3 (Jul. 1930):  269-277.

Lerner, Gerda.  “Early Community Work of Black Club Women,” The Journal of Negro History, 59/2 (Apr. 1974):  158-167.

Newman, Debra L.  “Black Women in the Era of the American Revolution in Pennsylvania,” The Journal of Negro History, 61/3 (Jul. 1976):  276-289.

Sumler-Lewis, Janice.  “The Forten-Purvis Women of Philadelphia and the American Anti-Slavery Crusade,” The Journal of Negro History, 66/4 (Winter 1981-1982):  281-288.

Rouse, Jacqueline A.  “The Legacy of Community Organizing:  Lugenia Burns Hope and the Neighborhood Union,” The Journal of Negro History, 69, 3/4 (Summer – Autumn 1984):  114-133.

Littlefield, Valinda W.  “A Yearly Contract with Everybody and His Brother:  Durham County, North Carolina Black Female Public School Teachers, 1885-1927,” The Journal of Negro History, 79/1 (Winter 1994):  37-53.

The Black Family – Negro Life and History in the Southern States

Jackson, Luther P.  “The Early Strivings of the Negro in Virginia,” The Journal of Negro History, 25/1 (Jan. 1940):  25-34.

Bacote, Clarence A.  “Some Aspects of Negro Life in Georgia, 1880-1908,” The Journal of Negro History, 43/3 (Jul. 1958):  186-213.

Sheeler, J. Reuben.  “The Negro on the Virginia Frontier,” The Journal of Negro History, 43/4 (Oct. 1958):  279-297.

Hoffman, Edwin D.  “The Genesis of the Modern Movement for Equal Rights in South Carolina, 1930-1939,” The Journal of Negro History, 44/4 (Oct. 1959):  346-369.

Bonekemper, III, Edward H.  “Negro Ownership of Real Property in Hampton and Elizabeth City County, Virginia, 1860-1870,” The Journal of Negro History, 55/3 (Jul. 1970):  165-181.

Jones, Allen W.  “The Role of Tuskegee Institute in the Education of Black Farmers,” The Journal of Negro History, 60/2 (Apr. 1975):  252-267.

Davis, Ronald L. F.  “The U.S. Army and the Origins of Sharecropping in the Natchez District – A Case Study,” The Journal of Negro History, 62/1 (Jan. 1977):  60-80.

Greene, Lorenzo J.  “Economic Conditions among Negroes in the South, 1930, as Seen by an Associate of Dr. Carter G. Woodson,” The Journal of Negro History, 64/3 (Summer 1979):  265-273.

Gordon, Lawrence.  “A Brief Look at Blacks in Depression Mississippi, 1929-1934:  Eyewitness Accounts,” The Journal of Negro History, 64/4 (Autumn 1979):  377-390.

Hemmingway, Theodore.  “Prelude to Change:  Black Carolinians in the War Years, 1914-1920,” The Journal of Negro History, 65/3 (Summer):  212-227.

Jackson, Roswell F. and Rosalyn M. Patterson.  “A Brief History of Selected Black Churches in Atlanta, Georgia,” The Journal of Negro History, 74, 1/4 (Winter-Autumn):  31-52.

Howard, Walter T. and Virginia M. Howard.  “Family, Religion, and Education:  A Profile of African-American Life in Tampa, Florida, 1900-1930,” The Journal of Negro History, 79/1 (Winter 1994):  1-17.

Littlefield, Valinda W.  “A Yearly Contract with Everybody and His Brother:  Durham County, North Carolina Black Female Public School Teachers, 1885-1927,” The Journal of Negro History, 79/1 (Winter 1994):  37-53.

Tristano, Richard M.  “Holy Family Parish:  The Genesis of an African-American Catholic Community in Natchez, Mississippi,” The Journal of Negro History, 83/4 (Autumn 1998):  258-283.

Wilson, Carolyn.  “The Displacement of Cotton Workers in Sumter County, South Carolina, 1930-1960,” The Journal of Negro History, 85/3 (Summer 2000):  191-196.

The Black Family – General Articles

Woodson, Carter G.  “The Beginnings of the Miscegenation of the Whites and Blacks,” The Journal of Negro History, 3/4 (Oct. 1918):  335-353.

Kaplan, Sidney.  “The Miscegenation Issue in the Election of 1864,” The Journal of Negro History, 34/3 (Jul. 1949):  274-343.

Pease, William H. and Jane H. Pease.  “Organized Negro Communities:  A North American Experiment,” The Journal of Negro History, 47/1 (Jan. 1962):  19-34.

Johnson, Whittington B.  “The Vinson Court and Racial Segregation, 1946-1953,” The Journal of Negro History, 63/3 (Jul. 1978):  220-230.

Frey, Cecile P.  “The House of Refuge for Colored Children,” The Journal of Negro History, 66/1 (Spring 1981):  10-25.

Pryde, Marion J.  “My Personal and Family Reminiscences of Dr. Carter Godwin Woodson,” The Journal of Negro History, 76, 1/4 (Winter-Autumn):  101-105.

Sprague, Stuart Seely.  “More African Americans Speak:  The New Mother Lode,” The Journal of Negro History, 78/4 (Autumn 1993):  258-265.

Hart, Jamie.  “Who Should Have the Children?  Discussions of Birth Control among African-American Intellectuals, 1920-1939,” The Journal of Negro History, 79/1 (Winter 1994):  71-84.

Cash, Floris Barnett.  “Kinship and Quilting:  An Examination of an African-American Tradition,” The Journal of Negro History, 80/1 (Winter 1995):  30-41.

Gupta, Gunja San.  “Black and ‘Dangerous’?:  African American Working Poor Perspectives on Juvenile Reform and Welfare in Victorian New York, 1840-1890,” The Journal of Negro History, 86/2 (Spring 2001):  99-131.

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